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Friday, June 22, 2012

RECIPROCAL TEACHING LEARNING (PEMBELAJARAN RECIPROCAL)


Reciprocal Teaching adalah sebuah rancangan metode instruksional untuk menggunakan prior knowledge (pengetahuan awal) dan interactive dialogues (dialog interaktif) untuk meningkatkan perkembangan pemahaman siswa dalam keadaan yang alami. Pembelajaran ini dirancang untuk mengatasi kesulitan belajar dalam membaca teks (Brown & Pelincsar, 1982). Metode ini dapat membangun perbendaharaan strategi-strategi yang akan memungkinkan mereka untuk mempelajari muatan baru oleh mereka sendiri (Brown, et al., 1991, 150). Dalam pembelajaran timbal balik seperti inilah siswa akan merasa bahwa diri mereka memiliki peran penting dalam proses pembelajaran, sehingga mereka akan berusaha menguasai dan memahami materi semaksimal mungkin sebelum mereka mempresentasikan atau mengajarkan materi tersebut kepada teman-teman mereka, dan akhirnya proses pembelajaran pun akan lebih bermakna bagi siswa. Dalam proses ini terdapat empat strategi yaitu summarizing, question generating, clarifying, and predicting.
Summarizing provides the opportunity to identify and integrate the most important information in the text. Text can be summarized across sentences, across paragraphs, and across the passage as a whole. When the students first begin the reciprocal teaching procedure, their efforts are generally focused at the sentence and paragraph levels. As they become more proficient, they are able to integrate at the paragraph and passage levels. Kemampuan untuk dapat membedakan hal-hal yang penting dan hal-hal yang tidak penting. Menentukan intisari dari teks bacaan tersebut.

Question generating reinforces the summarizing strategy and carries the learner one more step along in the comprehension activity. When students generate questions, they first identify the kind of information that is significant enough to provide the substance for a question. They then pose this information in question form and self-test to ascertain that they can indeed answer their own question. Question generating is a flexible strategy to the extent that students can be taught and encouraged to generate questions at many levels. For example, some school situations require that students master supporting detail information; others require that the students be able to infer or apply new information from text. Question generating ini digunakan untuk memonitor dan mengevalusi sejauhmana pemahaman siswa terhadap bahan bacaan.
 
Clarifying is an activity that is particularly important when working with students who have a history of comprehension difficulty. These students may believe that the purpose of reading is saying the words correctly; they may not be particularly uncomfortable that the words, and in fact the passage, are not making sense. When the students are asked to clarify, their attention is called to the fact that there may be many reasons why text is difficult to understand (e.g., new vocabulary, unclear reference words, and unfamiliar and perhaps difficult concepts). They are taught to be alert to the effects of such impediments to comprehension and to take the necessary measures to restore meaning (e.g., reread, ask for help). Dalam suatu aktifitas membaca mungkin saja seorang siswa menganggap pengucapan kata yang benar adalah hal yang terpenting walaupun mereka tidak memahami makna dari kata-kata yang diucapkan tersebut. Siswa diminta untuk mencerna makna dari kata-kata atau kalimat-kalimat yang tidak familier, apakah meraka dapat memaknai maksud dari suatu paragraph.

Predicting occurs when students hypothesize what the author will discuss next in the text. In order to do this successfully, students must activate the relevant background knowledge that they already possess regarding the topic. The students have a purpose for reading: to confirm or disprove their hypotheses. Furthermore, the opportunity has been created for the students to link the new knowledge they will encounter in the text with the knowledge they already possess. The predicting strategy also facilitates use of text structure as students learn that headings, subheadings, and questions imbedded in the text are useful means of anticipating what might occur next. Pada tahap ini siswa diajak untuk melibatkan pengetahuan yang sudah diperoleh di awal untuk digabungkan dengan informasi yang diperoleh dari teks yang dibaca. Kemudian digunakan dalam mengimajinasikan kemungkinan yang akan terjadi berdasar atas gabungan informasi yang sudah dimilikinya. Setidaknya siswa diharapkan dapat membuat dugaan tentang topic dari paragraph selanjutnya.

Sumber:
Palincsar, A.L., & Brown, A.L. (1984). Reciprocal teaching of comprehension-fostering and comprehension monitoring activities. Cognition And Instruction, 1(2) 117-175.

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